Category: History

Documentation in the Assyrian Empire

 

Assyrian Empire pic

Assyrian Empire
Image: ancient-civilizations.com

Amita Vadlamudi is a longtime computer systems engineer in the financial services field. Outside of professional pursuits, Amita Vadlamudi has a strong interest in anthropology and ancient cultures. One culture popularly studied by anthropology buffs is Assyria, a region in the Near East that extended from Mesopotamia through Egypt thousands of years ago.

The Assyrian Empire and its capital of Ashur took their names from the god Ashur, who was reinterpreted as a son of Noah once the Assyrians accepted Christianity. The Assyrians initially spoke Akkadian but, like many nations in the Middle East, moved to Aramaic for its ease of use.

The Assyrian Empire had several advantages over other empires in the region, which ultimately led to greater success. For instance, one of its major emperors, Tukulti-Ninurta I, employed his scribes and scholars to create an efficient bureaucracy and to catalogue existing written works. While the Assyrians crushed revolts with overwhelming force, they also made sure to document the knowledge and cultures of conquered cities and nations, in the interest of expanding the empire’s technological and cultural dominance in the region.

Archimedes: Mathematician, Physicist, and Inventor

 

Archimedes pic

Archimedes
Image: thefamouspeople.com

Amita Vadlamudi spent more than 30 years working as a computer systems analyst and engineer. Outside of her work, Amita Vadlamudi enjoys reading and learning about a variety of subjects, including Ancient Greece.

Archimedes of Syracuse, born in 287 BC, is often hailed as one of the most accomplished mathematicians of his time. Like other Greek intellectuals, Archimedes was well-versed in multiple areas of study. He used his knowledge of mathematics, physics, engineering, and astronomy to deduce facts about lever function and hydrostatics. He is credited with creating Archimedes’ screw, a machine made with a screw inside a hollow tube that Archimedes designed for King Hiero. Archimedes’ screw aids irrigation systems in developing countries to this day.

Archimedes is also lauded for his discovery of the fundamental principles of buoyancy. He conducted extensive research into density and volume, which formed the basis for hydrostatic studies. Lastly, Archimedes is known for writing three incredibly-detailed treatises in Greek.

To learn more about Archimedes’ inventions and theories, visit goo.gl/LMYC7v.

The Origins of Chocolate in the Mayan World

Origins of Chocolate  pic

Origins of Chocolate
Image: godivachocolates.co.uk

A computer systems analyst with over three decades of experience, Amita Vadlamudi has worked in various capacities in the information technology sector. A lifelong learner, Amita Vadlamudi enjoys learning about history and science. In particular, she is interested in ancient American cultures, like the Maya civilization of South America.

The Maya culture was extremely complex and sophisticated. In addition to several noteworthy scientific and astronomical discoveries, Mayans also are responsible for domesticating the cacao bean. The cacao bean was a prized element of the Mayas. Its importance is evidenced by its prolific inclusion in artwork, on vases, and in murals. It had medicinal, sacrificial, ceremonial, and culinary uses and was even used as currency.

The Mayas used the cacao bean to produce a frothy, sugarless chocolate drink made from crushed cacao beans, chili peppers, and water. The chocolate drink was a luxury item and was often offered to royals and newly married couples. It was known as the “food of the gods.”

Christopher Columbus was the first European exposed to the cacao bean during his fourth and last voyage to the Americas, when the treasured beans were offered to him as a trade item. Later, in 1528, Hernan Cortes brought chocolate to the Spanish court. With the addition of sugar, chocolate became very popular and spread throughout Europe as a luxury item.

Ancient Inventions

The Nail pic

The Nail
Image: objectlessons.org

Amita Vadlamudi, who served most recently as a computer systems engineer, is a history enthusiast. Fascinated especially by ancient cultures, Amita Vadlamudi specifically enjoys reading about Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Babylonian, Mayan, Incan, and Aztec civilizations.

Many items and practices we take for granted today were invented during ancient times. A few examples:

1. The nail, a common hardware item, was originally invented and used in ancient Rome, replacing difficult building practices in which wood structures had to be interlocked in a complicated process.

2. Written language had at least five distinct, separate beginnings. Ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Chinese, and Mayan cultures, and people residing in the Indus Valley all came up with their own ways of communicating and sharing information. Many of these spread to other regions and were the basis for written languages, like Latin.

3. Paper and block printing originated in ancient Chinese culture. Through this invention, it became possible to create and distribute texts that otherwise would have been handwritten.

4. The door lock, or at least its predecessor, was invented in ancient Egypt. The first door locks were pin and tumbler locks that required a key to turn and withdraw the bolt.

Brief History of the Oregon Trail

Oregon Trail pic

Oregon Trail
Image: oregon.com

A computer science graduate of St. Peter’s College in Jersey City, Amita Vadlamudi has led a successful career in the information technology industry. Among Amita Vadlamudi’s many interests outside of computer science is American history.

One significant undertaking in American history that led to the mass settlement of the western United States was the discovery and use of the 2,000-mile Oregon Trial. This stretched from Missouri to Oregon. In 1800, what was known as Oregon Country still belonged to the British Empire. In 1803, the U.S. government secretly funded the Lewis & Clark expedition with a plan for the eventual settlement of Oregon Country, but the route that Lewis & Clark made was too hazardous for travel by wagon.

Fur trader Robert Steward took an opposite approach starting from Fort Astoria in western Oregon to Missouri. What became known as the Oregon trail covered 2,000 miles from Fort Astoria to St. Louis. This was undertaken by Steward in 1810 and took 10 months to accomplish. The bigger accomplishment was that the route allowed for possible family travel by wagon.

In 1843, close to 1,000 people formed a wagon train beginning in Missouri and were able to successfully reach Oregon Country using the South Pass, a 12-mile-wide valley that allowed crossing through the harsh Rocky Mountains. With thousands of people settling in Oregon Country, England ceded it to the U.S. government in 1846. Thousands of people used the trail in search of cheap farmland or for gold mining in California.

Amelia Earhart’s Accomplishments in U.S. Aviation

Amita Vadlamudi

With a background in IT spanning three decades, Amita Vadlamudi served as a computer systems analyst and provided support for a diversity of mainframe and Unix systems. Amita Vadlamudi has a longstanding interest in ancient cultures as well as more recent American history.

One of the most dynamic public figures of the early 20th century was Amelia Earhart, who started flying as a hobby in 1921. Progressing quickly, she broke the women’s altitude record the following year, exceeding 14,000 feet. In 1928, she became ingrained in the American consciousness as the first woman to fly transatlantic, though she did so as a passenger.

Earhart continued to open doors in aviation for women in the 1930s and set increasingly ambitious goals. In 1932, she became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic solo, and in 1935, she was the first person to pilot a plane from Hawaii to the continental United States. Two years later, she embarked on what turned out to be her final adventure: a 22,000-mile flight that would span the globe at the equator. Unfortunately, two-thirds of the way through her journey, Amelia Earhart and her navigator disappeared in the Pacific Ocean, en route from New Guinea to tiny Howland Island.

Where Did the Maya Live?

Mayan Civilization pic

Mayan Civilization
Image: history.com

Amita Vadlamudi is a computer systems engineer who has spent 35 years in the information technology industry. Additionally, Amita Vadlamudi enjoys studying and learning about ancient cultures, such as the Mayans and the Incas.

The Mayan civilization flourished in Mesoamerica (the name used to describe Central America and Mexico as it existed before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century). Unlike other indigenous populations of the time, the Maya were centered in one region, covering what are now known as the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, and parts of the Mexican states of Chiapas and Tabasco. Because of this concentration, the Maya were relatively safe from invasion by other Mesoamericans.

Within this region, the Maya occupied three different areas, each with its own environment and culture. One group lived in the northern lowlands on the Yucatan Peninsula, while another group resided in the southern lowlands in what is now the Peten district of northern Guatemala as well as nearby parts of Mexico, Belize, and Honduras. A third group lived in the southern highlands in the mountains of southern Guatemala.

The American Middle Class

American Middle Class pic

American Middle Class
Image: content.time.com

A computer systems engineer who supported numerous distributed system and mainframe products, Amita Vadlamudi does volunteer work such as grocery shopping for the homebound and shelf reading at her local library. An avid reader, Amita Vadlamudi’s interests include a diversity of topics, ranging from environmental issues to American history.

American history is the history of the American people, the majority of whom are considered “middle class.” For the first hundred years of that history, though, there was no real middle class in the United States. Before the 19th century, economic classes in the country consisted of:
1) the wealthy
2) professionals, like doctors and lawyers, whose interests aligned closely with those of the wealthy
3) a relatively small merchant class composed of shopkeepers and artisans
4) farmers, who comprised the majority of Americans.

A host of social and societal changes can be traced to the 19th-century introduction of factories and retail stores, which employed scores of blue-collar and white-collar workers, many of them women who’d never before worked outside the home or earned money. Factory and office jobs, though, remained low-paying occupations, even for their salaried managers.

The credit for creating an affluent middle class in the United States is often given to Henry Ford, who in 1914 began paying workers in automobile assembly plants $5 for an eight-hour day of work. His objective in doing so was to attract and retain workers who were more reliable, because absenteeism was a significant problem that slowed production rates.

By paying more than double the prevailing factory wage of the day, Ford not only stabilized his workforce, but he also enabled his workers to buy the cars they were producing, thus significantly increasing the market for his product. Other employers were forced to follow suit if they wanted to retain their best workers. This phenomenon created the industrial-based middle class and a consumer economy that throughout the 20th century made the United States an economic powerhouse.